hnn_core.dipole.Dipole¶
- class hnn_core.dipole.Dipole(times, data, nave=1)[source]¶
Dipole class.
An instance of the
Dipole
-class contains the simulated dipole moment timecourses for L2 and L5 pyramidal cells, as well as their aggregate ('agg'
). The units of the dipole moment are innAm
(1e-9 Ampere-meters).- Parameters
- timesarray (n_times,)
The time vector (in ms)
- dataarray, shape (n_times x n_layers)
The data. The first column represents ‘agg’ (the total diple), the second ‘L2’ layer and the last one ‘L5’ layer. For experimental data, it can contain only one column.
- naveint
Number of trials that were averaged to produce this Dipole. Defaults to 1
- Attributes
- timesarray-like
The time vector (in ms)
- sfreqfloat
The sampling frequency (in Hz)
- datadict of array
Dipole moment timecourse arrays with keys ‘agg’, ‘L2’ and ‘L5’
- naveint
Number of trials that were averaged to produce this Dipole
- scale_appliedint or float
The total factor by which the dipole has been scaled (using
scale()
).
Methods
copy
()Return a copy of the Dipole instance
plot
([tmin, tmax, layer, decim, ax, color, show])Simple layer-specific plot function.
plot_psd
([fmin, fmax, tmin, tmax, layer, ...])Plot power spectral density (PSD) of dipole time course
plot_tfr_morlet
(freqs[, n_cycles, tmin, ...])Plot Morlet time-frequency representation of dipole time course
savgol_filter
(h_freq)Smooth the dipole waveform using Savitzky-Golay filtering
scale
(factor)Scale (multiply) the dipole moment by a fixed factor
smooth
(window_len)Smooth the dipole waveform using Hamming-windowed convolution
write
(fname)Write dipole values to a file.
- copy()[source]¶
Return a copy of the Dipole instance
- Returns
- dpl_copyinstance of Dipole
A copy of the Dipole instance.
- plot(tmin=None, tmax=None, layer='agg', decim=None, ax=None, color='k', show=True)[source]¶
Simple layer-specific plot function.
- Parameters
- tminfloat or None
Start time of plot (in ms). If None, plot entire simulation.
- tmaxfloat or None
End time of plot (in ms). If None, plot entire simulation.
- layerstr
The layer to plot. Can be one of ‘agg’, ‘L2’, and ‘L5’
- decimateint
Factor by which to decimate the raw dipole traces (optional)
- axinstance of matplotlib figure | None
The matplotlib axis
- colortuple of float
RGBA value to use for plotting. By default, ‘k’ (black)
- showbool
If True, show the figure
- Returns
- figinstance of plt.fig
The matplotlib figure handle.
- plot_psd(fmin=0, fmax=None, tmin=None, tmax=None, layer='agg', color=None, label=None, ax=None, show=True)[source]¶
Plot power spectral density (PSD) of dipole time course
Applies
periodogram
from SciPy withwindow='hamming'
. Note that no spectral averaging is applied across time, as mosthnn_core
simulations are short-duration. However, passing a list ofDipole
instances will plot their average (Hamming-windowed) power, which resembles the Welch-method applied over time.- Parameters
- dplinstance of Dipole | list of Dipole instances
The Dipole object.
- fminfloat
Minimum frequency to plot (in Hz). Default: 0 Hz
- fmaxfloat
Maximum frequency to plot (in Hz). Default: None (plot up to Nyquist)
- tminfloat or None
Start time of data to include (in ms). If None, use entire simulation.
- tmaxfloat or None
End time of data to include (in ms). If None, use entire simulation.
- layerstr, default ‘agg’
The layer to plot. Can be one of ‘agg’, ‘L2’, and ‘L5’
- colorstr | tuple | None
The line color of PSD
- labelstr | None
Line label for PSD
- axinstance of matplotlib figure | None
The matplotlib axis.
- showbool
If True, show the figure
- Returns
- figinstance of matplotlib Figure
The matplotlib figure handle.
- plot_tfr_morlet(freqs, n_cycles=7.0, tmin=None, tmax=None, layer='agg', decim=None, padding='zeros', ax=None, colormap='inferno', colorbar=True, colorbar_inside=False, show=True)[source]¶
Plot Morlet time-frequency representation of dipole time course
NB: Calls
tfr_array_morlet
, somne
must be installed.- Parameters
- dplinstance of Dipole | list of Dipole instances
The Dipole object. If a list of dipoles is given, the power is calculated separately for each trial, then averaged.
- freqsarray
Frequency range of interest.
- n_cyclesfloat or array of float, default 7.0
Number of cycles. Fixed number or one per frequency.
- tminfloat or None
Start time of plot in milliseconds. If None, plot entire simulation.
- tmaxfloat or None
End time of plot in milliseconds. If None, plot entire simulation.
- layerstr, default ‘agg’
The layer to plot. Can be one of ‘agg’, ‘L2’, and ‘L5’
- decimint or list of int or None (default)
Optional (integer) factor by which to decimate the raw dipole traces. The SciPy function
decimate()
is used, which recommends values <13. To achieve higher decimation factors, a list of ints can be provided. These are applied successively.- paddingstr or None
Optional padding of the dipole time course beyond the plotting limits. Possible values are: ‘zeros’ for padding with 0’s (default), ‘mirror’ for mirror-image padding.
- axinstance of matplotlib figure | None
The matplotlib axis
- colormapstr
The name of a matplotlib colormap, e.g., ‘viridis’. Default: ‘inferno’
- colorbarbool
If True (default), adjust figure to include colorbar.
- colorbar_inside: bool, default False
Put the color inside the heatmap if True.
- showbool
If True, show the figure
- Returns
- figinstance of matplotlib Figure
The matplotlib figure handle.
- savgol_filter(h_freq)[source]¶
Smooth the dipole waveform using Savitzky-Golay filtering
Note that this method operates in-place, i.e., it will alter the data. If you prefer a filtered copy, consider using the
copy()
-method. The high-frequency cutoff value of a Savitzky-Golay filter is approximate; see the SciPy reference:savgol_filter()
.- Parameters
- h_freqfloat or None
Approximate high cutoff frequency in Hz. Note that this is not an exact cutoff, since Savitzky-Golay filtering is done using polynomial fits instead of FIR/IIR filtering. This parameter is thus used to determine the length of the window over which a 5th-order polynomial smoothing is applied.
- Returns
- dpl_copyinstance of Dipole
A copy of the modified Dipole instance.
- scale(factor)[source]¶
Scale (multiply) the dipole moment by a fixed factor
The attribute
Dipole.scale_applied
is updated to reflect factors applied and displayed in plots.- Parameters
- factorint
Scaling factor, applied to the data in-place.
- smooth(window_len)[source]¶
Smooth the dipole waveform using Hamming-windowed convolution
Note that this method operates in-place, i.e., it will alter the data. If you prefer a filtered copy, consider using the
copy()
-method.- Parameters
- window_lenfloat
The length (in ms) of a
hamming
window to convolve the data with.
- Returns
- dpl_copyinstance of Dipole
A copy of the modified Dipole instance.