Please read the contribution guide until the end before beginning contributions.

Contributions are welcome in the form of pull requests.

Once the implementation of a piece of functionality is considered to be bug free and properly documented (both API docs and an example script), it can be incorporated into the master branch.

To help developing hnn-core, you will need a few adjustments to your installation as shown below.

If your contributions will make use of parallel backends for using more than one core, please see the additional installation steps in our parallel backend guide.

Setting up your local development environment

Configuring git

Instructions for how to configure git can be found on the git book configuration page.

Making your first pull request

Changes to hnn-core are typically made by “forking” the hnn-core repository, making changes to your fork (usually by “cloning” it to your personal computer, making the changes locally, and then “pushing” the local changes up to your fork on GitHub), and finally creating a “pull request” to incorporate your changes back into the shared “upstream” version of the codebase.

In general you’ll be working with three different copies of the hnn-core codebase: the official remote copy at (usually called upstream), your remote fork of the upstream repository (similar URL, but with your username in place of hnn-core, and usually called origin), and the local copy of the codebase on your computer. The typical contribution process is to

  1. Make a fork of the hnn-core repository to your own account on github. Look for the Fork button in the top right corner

  2. On the terminal of your local computer clone the fork:

    $ git clone<username>/hnn-core
  3. On the terminal of your local computer set up the remotes:

    $ cd hnn-core
    $ git remote add upstream
  4. Check that the remotes have been correctly added:

    $ git remote -v

    You should see:

    origin<username>/hnn-core (fetch)
    origin<username>/hnn-core (push)
    upstream (fetch)
    upstream (push)
  5. To start a new feature branch, we will copy the existing master branch from the upstream remote and give it a specific name:

    $ git fetch upstream master:cool_feature
    $ git checkout cool_feature
  6. Make your changes relevant to the pull request

  7. To make a commit, you first have to add the files you have changed to the staging area:

    $ git add -u

    ensure they have been added correctly:

    $ git status

    make a commit:

    $ git commit -m "your commit message"

    and finally check that the commit has been added:

    $ git log

    Note: see the numpy contributing guide for tips on informative commit messages.

  8. Now push the feature branch to your fork:

    $ git push origin cool_feature
  9. Go to to open the pull request by selecting your feature branch. You should also see this link on the terminal when you make the push.

  1. After your pull request is reviewed, repeat steps 6-8 to update the pull request.

  2. Once the pull request is ready to be merged, add the prefix [MRG] to the title.

See the git book for a more general guide on using git.

Installing editable hnn-core

For making changes to hnn-core, you will need to install an editable version of hnn-core. For that you need to have the git cloned hnn-core repository and use pip with the editable (-e) flag:

$ git clone
$ cd hnn-core
$ pip install -e '.[dev]'
$ python build_mod

The pip install -e '.[dev]' step will install all extra packages used by developers to access all features and to perform testing and building of documentation.

The last step builds mod files which specifies the dynamics of specific cellular mechanisms. These are converted to C, and hence require a compilation step. In the normal course of development, you will not have to edit these files. However, if you do have to update them, they will need to be rebuilt using the command:

$ python build_mod

Running tests

Once you have the editable hnn-core, you should install the requirements for running the tests. Tests help ensure integrity of the package after your change has been made. We recommend developers to run tests locally on their computers after making changes.

We use the pytest testing framework.

To run the tests simply type into your terminal:

$ make test

MPI tests are skipped if the mpi4py module is not installed. We highly encourage contributors to follow the parallel backend guide to install mpi4py so that they can run the entire test suite locally on their computer.

Updating documentation

When you update the documentation, it is recommended to build it locally to check whether the documentation renders correctly in HTML.

Certain documentation files require explicit updates by the contributor of a given change (i.e., you). These are:

  • doc/api.rst if you added a new function.

  • doc/whats_new.rst to document the fix or change so you can be credited on the next release.

Please update these documents once your pull request is ready to merge to avoid rebase conflicts with other pull requests.

Building the documentation

The documentation can be built using sphinx.

You can build the documentation locally using the command:

$ cd doc/
$ make html

If you want to build the documentation locally without running all the examples, use the command:

$ make html-noplot

Finally, to view the documentation, do:

$ make view

How to rebase

Commits in hnn-core follow a linear history, therefore we use a “rebase” workflow instead of “merge” to resolve commits. See this article for more details on the differences between these workflows.

To rebase, we do the following:

  1. Checkout the feature branch:

    $ git checkout cool_feature
  2. Delete the master branch and fetch a new copy:

    $ git branch -D master
    $ git fetch upstream master:master
  3. Start the rebase:

    $ git rebase master
  4. If there are conflicts, the easiest approach is to resolve them in an editor like VS code. See this guide for more general information on resolve merge conflicts

  5. Once the conflicts have been resolved, add the resolved files to the staging area:

    $ git add -u
    $ git rebase --continue

In general it is best to rebase frequently if you are aware of pull requests being merged into the master base.

If you face a lot of difficulting resolving merge conflicts, it may be easier to squash before rebasing.

Continuous Integration

The repository is tested via continuous integration with GitHub Actions and Circle. The automated tests run on GitHub Actions while the documentation is built on Circle.

To speed up the documentation-building process on CircleCI, we enabled versioned caching.

Usually, you don’t need to worry about it. But in case a complete rebuild is necessary for a new version of the doc, you can modify the content in .circleci/build_cache, as CircleCI uses the MD5 of that file as the key for previously cached content. For consistency, we recommend you to monotonically increase the version number in that file, e.g., from “v2”-> “v3”.